Tuesday, 14 May 2013


GIS, Geographical Information System is an Integration of systems designed to capture/collect, store, manipulate, analyze, manage, and display all types of geographical data such as Geo-spatial data.
GeoJSON ;-
An open format for encoding a collection of geographic data structures and more compact data structure to store geographical co-ordinates, that is, Spatial data format types supported in GeoJSON include points, polygons, multi-polygons, features, geometry collections, and bounding boxes, which are stored along with feature information and attributes. It borrows format from JavaScript's JSON(JavaScript Object Notation).

PostGIS ; -
An open source software that adds support for geographic objects to the PostgreSQL database and just like GeoJSON, PostGIS follows the simple features for SQL specification from the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC).

CartoDB ;-
A Geospatial database used to create data driven maps, or dynamic maps, analyze and build location aware and geospatial applications with your data using the power using the power of PostGIS.


A person who intents or seeks to intrude into the system without owner's consent through the network or system thus exploiting the weaknesses of the system or network. Hackers aim more at security breaches to infiltrate to owner's system or network and one of the most malicious types hackers are Black Hats, but contrasts the ethical hackers, that is, White Hats. They use sophisticated hack tools probably made by them or other people, or malicious software applications, e.g., Rootkit, Backdoor, Trojan horse, Virus, Worm, Spyware, Botnet, Keystroke logging, Antivirus software,Firewall, IDS(Intrusion Detection Systems).

 Classifications of hackers ; -
  • White hat
  • Black hat
  • Grey hat
  • Elite hacker
  • Script kiddie
  • Neophyte
  • Blue hat
  • Hacktivist
  • Nation state
  • Organized criminal gangs
  • Bots
Ways you can use to intrude into a system; -
  • SQL(Structured Query Language) injection. 
Hiding code snippets inside a page request to a web server, especially SQL commands which compromise the security of the website or server. Mostly, PHP or any other suitable scripting languages would be suitable to be deployed in such a scenario. This is mostly for any scripting languages that run on the web server using SQL such as PHP.
  • XSS(Cross-Site Scripting).
 This would be the accessing information of web pages using scripts that access the data(variables) exposed when the web page is running on the client-side. Mostly, Javascript language may be deployed for such a scenario because it runs best on client machines. This is mostly for Javascript Hackers.
  • Brute-Force Computing.
Mostly deployed any where you have software programming is involved especially the desktop software applications which involve very fast vigorous processes that may compromise data as well. This kind of computing may be very malicious when well-used on an attack of a system. Learned in advanced Computer science courses and examples of brute-force techniques are recursion and iteration.